The district largely consists of irregular uplands with outcrops of rocks intermingling with lowlands, which are frequently under water during the rainy season. The Baghein River traverses the district from south-west to north-east. Other important rivers are the Ken River in the east and the Yamuna to the north. The dominant communities of this area are of Kshatriyas, Patels, Chandrauls, Chandelas, Bundelas etc.
(a) River System and Water Resources
Yamuna flowing north of the district, is the principal river attracting all the drainage of the district.Total length of the river in this tract is 215 km. of this 130 km lies with Banda while the rest 85 km with Chitrakut.
Ken rising is district Damoh, touches Banda near village Bilaharka in Naraini tahsil for about two km and then turns towards Chhatarpur district appearing again in the same tahsil. Then entering Banda tahsil near Utarandi village it flows north-east bordering district Hamirpur and then turns eastward to meet Yamuna at Chillghat.
Baghein is the second important river of this district. Emanating from a hill near Kohari of Panna district, it enters Banda district at Masauni Bharatpur village (the. Naraini). It flows north-east-ward and at a point separates Banda from the newly created Chitrakut district forming boundaries between Atarra, Baberu and Karrwi tahsils.
The district forms part of the northern fringe of the Peninsular India coming in contact with the Gangetic alluvium. It has an important place in the geology of the country owing to the presence of all Pre Cambrian rocks, probably right from the oldest ones in the Indian sub- continment, in a compact linear east-west stretch.
In Banda district loose sediments as well as black cotton soil is found. Black cotton soil is prominent in the central part. Four major type of soil a) Rakar, b) Mar, c) Kabar and d) Padua are dominant in the district.
(d) Cropping Pattern
The three main cropping seasons in the district are Kharif, Rabi and Zaid. The other crops raised in the district include wheat, paddy, maize, pulses and oilseeds. Main fruits grown are mango and guava.
The climate of the district is characterized by a hot summer and a pleasant winter. The cold season from about middle of November to February is followed by hot season from March to middle of June . The period from mid-June to the end of September is south-west Monsoon season.
The average annual rainfall is 902.00 mm. The climate is typical subtropical characterized by long and intense summers. About 80% of the annual rainfall is received from south-west monsoon. The relative humidity is highest in August about 85% and lowest in April.
Max.Temp : May is the hottest month with mercury shooting upto 47.0 °C
Min Temp: January is usually the coldest month with temperature going upto 5.8 °C.